Today, physicists take the existence of black holes for granted. But back in the mid-1960s, the jury was still out: Were black holes a real feature of our universe, or a figment of mathematicians’ imaginations? The debate changed with a historic collaboration between mathematician Roger Penrose and physicist Stephen Hawking. Forty-five years after the publication of their 1970 Royal Society paper, Roger Penrose remembers the discoveries that led him and Hawking to believe that black holes really do exist, and that our universe started with a space-time singularity.
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